Chapter 3. Changing instruction through Visual Teacher Learning Abstract This chapter provides an up-to-date systematic review of the research literature since 2000, focussing on the effects of Visual Teacher Learning on teachers’ behaviour in interaction with learners and content. After an account of the selection criteria and analysis methods used, six types of outcomes of Visual Teacher Learning are distinguished: teachers sequence lesson content and learning activities more carefully; they change their classroom discourse in ways enabling them to diagnose and respond to pupil learning better; they improve their instructional routines and classroom management; they engage more in two- way communication with pupils, show more sensitivity towards them and stimulate them more. Also, the sustainability of these outcomes over time, differences depending on career phase and individual differences are addressed. Then, the impact of these changes in instruction on pupil learning is identified: as teachers activate and engage pupils more, they achieve improvements in pupils’ classroom behaviour. This review clarifies that three processes of teacher learning are responsible for the above outcomes: engaging in repeated activity cycles, cooperation and dialogue with colleagues, and making classroom interaction visible. Finally, supportive and obstructive conditions on the level of school organisation are identified. The main conclusion is that digital video is a medium especially suitable for raising the quality of teaching and learning.